Exercise 11 Read the text about credit cards and decide if the following statements are true or false.
1. Any customer can have a credit card.
2. The user can spend only a certain amount.
3. The user must spend €250 per month.
4. The bank pays the bills then the user pays the bank.
5. A credit card has advantages and disadvantages.
6. You always pay interest if you use a credit card.
Many banks now offer their customers credit cards. Any customer can apply for a credit card. If the bank thinks the customer is a good risk, it will issue him with a card and inform him of his personal credit limit.
For example, the bank might allow a customer a limit of €250 per month. This means that every month the customer can use his card to pay for €250 worth of goods and services or to borrow €250 in cash, travellers’ cheques or foreign currency. It does not matter if the customer’s bank account is empty, when he spends or borrows the €250.
At the end of the month the bank will send the customer a statement. Provided the customer clears his account every month the facility will cost him nothing. He will have a month’s credit free.
However, if the customer fails to clear his account every month he will be charged some interest per month on the outstanding balance. This alternative form of money can become very expensive, therefore.
Exercise 12 Read the text about travellers’ cheques and decide if the following statements are true or false.
1. Travellers’ cheques cannot be lost or stolen.
2. They are easy to cash.
3. You must always order travellers’ cheques.
4. You pay twice for travellers’ cheques.
5. You must sign each cheque twice.
6. You must keep a record of your cheques.
When travelling abroad it is always wise to carry your money in travellers’ cheques because cheques are protected against loss or theft. If your cheques are lost or stolen the issuing authority will refund your money.
Not only are they safe, they are also convenient. They are available in different denominations and different currencies and they can be cashed at most banks throughout the world. Most shops, hotels and restaurants also accept them.
To obtain travellers’ cheques you usually go to your bank. They can be paid for in cash or debited to your account. Large amounts, however, must be ordered in advance.
For the safety and convenience of travellers’ cheques you are charged two commissions. An insurance commission when you buy them and an encashment commission when you cash them.
They are very easy to use. When you collect them you sign each cheque once. The cashier may enter the amount in your passport. When you cash them you sign each cheque again. The casher will usually ask to see your passport again too.
It is advisable to make a note of the serial numbers and denominations of your cheques in case they are lost or stolen. Keep this separate from the cheques.
ISTQB Certification Practice - Example Exam
This article will cover my attempt to work through the a practice version of the ISTQB Foundation-level exam. It's a multiple choice format, so I will list each question, the answer options, and my reasoning for each option.
Legal notes, ISTQB is the author and owner of this practice exam, which can be found here.
1) Which of the following statements BEST describes one of the seven key principles of software testing?
a) Automated tests are better than manual tests for avoiding the
Exhaustive Testing. -False, exhaustive testing is a method of choosing tests, not implementing them.
b) Exhaustive testing is, with sufficient effort and tool support, feasible for
all software. -False, how would you exhaustively test a text editor, which has infinite possible states?
c) It is normally impossible to test all input / output combinations for a
software system. -True, and since all other answers were false this must be the correct answer.
d) The purpose of testing is to demonstrate the absence of defects. -False, testing can only show the presence of defects. It's always possible that a defect was outside of your (limited) coverage.
2) Which of the following statements is the MOST valid goal for a test team?
a) Determine whether enough component testing was executed. -Doesn't make sense, why was the testing done in the first place?
b) Cause as many failures as possible so that faults can be identified and
c) Prove that all faults are identified. -Impossible to know all faults
d) Prove that any remaining faults will not cause any failures. -Impossible to know all faults
3) Which of these tasks would you expect to perform during Test Analysis and
a) Setting or defining test objectives. -Objectives are defined beforehand. Analysis turns objectives into test cases.
b) Reviewing the test basis. -Correct answer
c) Creating test suites from test procedures. -This happens during implementation
d) Analyzing lessons learned for process improvement. -This happens after testing is done
4) Below is a list of problems that can be observed during testing or operation.
Which is MOST likely a failure?
a) The product crashed when the user selected an option in a dialog box. -Correct answer, a failure is a problem during execution.
b) One source code file included in the build was the wrong version. -Fault not failure
c) The computation algorithm used the wrong input variables. -Mistake not failure
d) The developer misinterpreted the requirement for the algorithm. -Mistake not failure
5) Which of the following, if observed in reviews and tests, would lead to
problems (or conflict) within teams?
a) Testers and reviewers are not curious enough to find defects. -No personal conflict
b) Testers and reviewers are not qualified enough to find failures and
faults. -No personal conflict
c) Testers and reviewers communicate defects as criticism against
persons and not against the software product. -Correct answer, causes personal conflict between testers and the people they're criticizing.
d) Testers and reviewers expect that defects in the software product have
already been found and fixed by the developers. -No personal conflict
6) Which of the following statements are TRUE?
A. Software testing may be required to meet legal or contractual
requirements. -True, e.g. a contract may only be considered fulfilled if the product passes test X.
B. Software testing is mainly needed to improve the quality of the
developer’s work. -There are many other reasons for testing, e.g. evaluation/acceptance
C. Rigorous testing and fixing of defects found can help reduce the risk of
problems occurring in an operational environment. -True. It can reduce risk. Not always, and doesn't eliminate it.
D. Rigorous testing is sometimes used to prove that all failures have been
found. -Impossible to find all failures
a) B and C are true; A and D are false.
b) A and D are true; B and C are false.
c) A and C are true, B and D are false. -This matches the analysis above
d) C and D are true, A and B are false.
7) Which of the following statements BEST describes the difference between
testing and debugging?
analyzes the faults and proposes prevention activities. -No, debugging does all of these
b) Dynamic testing shows failures caused by defects. Debugging finds,
analyzes, and removes the causes of failures in the software. -Correct
c) Testing removes faults. Debugging identifies the causes of failures. -No, faults are the cause of failures
d) Dynamic testing prevents causes of failures. Debugging removes the
failures. -Testing doesn't prevent anything
8) Which statement below BEST describes non-functional testing?
a) The process of testing an integrated system to verify that it meets
specified requirements. -Too general, functional testing also does this.
b) The process of testing to determine the compliance of a system to
coding standards. -This is only one kind of non-functional testing
c) Testing without reference to the internal structure of a system. -The above wouldn't be possible without reference to the internal structure.
d) Testing system attributes, such as usability, reliability or maintainability. -Correct, testing everything EXCEPT what actions the system performs.
9) What is important to do when working with software development models?
a) To adapt the models to the context of project and product
b) To choose the waterfall model because it is the first and best proven
model. -No, the world is not so simple
c) To start with the V-model and then move to either iterative or
incremental models. -No, as above
d) To only change the organization to fit the model and not vice versa. -Impractical
10) Which of the following characteristics of good testing apply to any software
development life cycle model?
b) All test levels are planned and completed for each developed feature. -Not every test level applies to every feature
c) Testers are involved as soon as the first piece of code can be executed. -Ideally they are involved before the first piece of code is written
d) For every development activity there is a corresponding testing activity. -Correct, testing wants to be involved every step of the way to catch problems before they start
11) For which of the following would maintenance testing be used?
a) Correction of defects during the development phase. -Maintenance happens after delivery
b) Planned enhancements to an existing operational system. -Correct
c) Complaints about system quality during user acceptance testing. -Maintenance happens after delivery
d) Integrating functions during the development of a new system. -Maintenance happens after delivery
12) Which of the following statements are TRUE?
A. Regression testing and acceptance testing are the same. -False, they are completely different
B. Regression tests show if all defects have been resolved. -False, impossible to know all defects
C. Regression tests are typically well-suited for test automation. -True, regressions run repeatedly so they benefit from the per-run benefits of automation
D. Regression tests are performed to find out if code changes have
introduced or uncovered defects. -True
E. Regression tests should be performed in integration testing. -Arguable, but looking at the possible answers this must be false.
b) A, C and E are true; B and D are false.
c) C and D are true; A, B and E are false. -Matches the above analysis
d) B and E are true; A, C and D are false.
13) Which of the following comparisons of component testing and system testing
program objects, and classes that are separately testable, whereas
system testing verifies interfaces between components and interactions
with different parts of the system. -First sentence is correct, the second sentence describes integration testing.
b) Test cases for component testing are usually derived from component
specifications, design specifications, or data models, whereas test
cases for system testing are usually derived from requirement
specifications, functional specifications or use cases. -True
c) Component testing focuses on functional characteristics, whereas
system testing focuses on functional and non-functional characteristics.-Component testing can include non-functional characteristics as well.
d) Component testing is the responsibility of the technical testers, whereas
system testing typically is the responsibility of the users of the system. -Both are responsible for both
14) Which of the following are the main phases of a formal review?
a) Initiation, status, preparation, review meeting, rework, follow up.
b) Planning, preparation, review meeting, rework, closure, follow up.
c) Planning, kick off, individual preparation, review meeting, rework, follow
up. -Correct, just from memory. These are very flexible terms, and any of the answers coudl be "correct" outside of an ISTQB exam.
d) Preparation, review meeting, rework, closure, follow up, root cause
15) Which TWO of the review types below are the BEST fitted (most adequate)
options to choose for reviewing safety critical components in a software
project? Select 2 options.
a) Informal review. -No, for critical components we want formality to ensure nothing is overlooked
b) Management review. -This isn't defined as a review type
c) Inspection. -This checks for errors, which we want
d) Walkthrough. -Walkthroughs are mostly for teaching, which is unrelated to the goal of safety.
e) Technical Review. -This checks for errors, which we want
16) Which of the following statements about static analysis is FALSE?
a) Static analysis can be used as a preventive measure with appropriate
process in place. -True, finding faults in code and documentation before the code is executed
b) Static analysis can find defects that are not easily found by dynamic
testing. -True, for example bad (but currently working) coding practices.
c) Static analysis can result in cost savings by finding defects early. -True, defects are cheaper to fix the earlier they are found
d) Static analysis is a good way to force failures into the software. -False, failures only come from execution, which static analysis does NOT do.
17) One of the test goals for the project is to have 100% decision coverage. The
following three tests have been executed for the control flow graph shown
Test A covers path: A, B, D, E, G.
Test B covers path: A, B, D, E, F, G.
Test C covers path: A, C, F, C, F, C, F, G.
Which of the following statements related to the decision coverage goal is
a) Decision D has not been tested completely. -True, only D-E was covered, not D-F
b) 100% decision coverage has been achieved. -False, see above
c) Decision E has not been tested completely. -False, both of E's branches are covered.
d) Decision F has not been tested completely. -False, both of F's branches are covered.
18) A defect was found during testing. When the network got disconnected while
receiving data from a server, the system crashed. The defect was fixed by
correcting the code that checked the network availability during data transfer.
The existing test cases covered 100% of all statements of the corresponding
module. To verify the fix and ensure more extensive coverage, some new
tests were designed and added to the test suite.
What types of testing are mentioned above?
A. Functional testing. -Network disconnection was a functional test
B. Structural testing. -Establishing statement coverage requires analysis of the internal structure of the code, ie structural testing.
C. Re-testing. -By elimination this must be true, but the scenario never actually says that the fix was retested. Tests to cover it do exist, but it doesn't actually say they were executed.
c) A, B and C. -Only this option matches the above analysis
19) Which of the following statements about the given state table is TRUE?
a) The state table can be used to derive both valid and invalid transitions. -Arguably you can derive that anything NOT in the table is invalid. But not as clearly true as b)
b) The state table represents all possible single transitions. -True, there is a test case for each transition line in the diagram
c) The state table represents only some of all possible single transitions. -False, see above
d) The state table represents sequential pairs of transitions. -False, each table entry only covers one transition
20) Which of the following statements are true for the equivalence partitioning test
A. Divides possible inputs into classes that have the same behaviour. -True
B. Uses both valid and invalid partitions. -Correct. "Invalid" here means "unexpected by the program." You might test invalid partitions to verify the program's error-handling ability.
C. Makes use only of valid partitions. -False, contradicts B.
D. Must include at least two values from every equivalence partition. -False
E. Can be used only for testing equivalence partitions inputs from a
Graphical User Interface. -False, any input can be partitioned
b) A, C and D are true; B and E are false.
c) A and E are true; B, C and D are false.
d) A and B are true; C, D and E are false. -Only this option matches the analysis above
21) Which TWO of the following solutions below lists techniques that can all be
categorized as Black Box design techniques?
Select 2 options.
a) Equivalence Partitioning, decision tables, state transition, and boundary
b) Equivalence Partitioning, decision tables, use case. -True
c) Equivalence Partitioning, decision tables, checklist based, statement
coverage, use case. -False, statement coverage depends on code knowledge, which is white-box
d) Equivalence Partitioning, cause-effect graph, checklist based, decision
coverage, use case. -False. Unlike a) this has "decision coverage," which requires knowing all decision-points within the code, whereas decision tables only need the inputs.
e) Equivalence Partitioning, cause-effect graph, checklist based, decision
coverage and boundary value. -False, see d)
22) An employee’s bonus is to be calculated. It cannot become negative, but it
can be calculated to zero. The bonus is based on the duration of the
employment. An employee can be employed for less than or equal to 2 years,
more than 2 years but less than 5 years, 5 to 10 years, or longer than 10
years. Depending on this period of employment, an employee will get either
no bonus or a bonus of 10%, 25% or 35%.
How many equivalence partitions are needed to test the calculation of the
23) Which of the following statements about the benefits of deriving test cases
from use cases are most likely to be true?
A. Deriving test cases from use cases is helpful for system and
acceptance testing. -True, use-cases describe final whole-system functionality, which is what you care about in system and acceptance testing.
B. Deriving test cases from use cases is helpful only for automated
C. Deriving test cases from use cases is helpful for component testing. -No connection
D. Deriving test cases from use cases is helpful for testing the interaction
between different components of the system. -No connection
b) A is true; B, C and D are false. -Matches the above analysis
c) A and B are true; C and D are false.
d) C is true; A, B and D are false.
24) Which of the below would be the best basis for fault attack testing?
a) Experience, defect and failure data, knowledge about software failures. -Correct, these are all critical factors for fault attack testing
b) Risk analysis performed at the beginning of the project. -Fault attacking requires you to know what specific failures you want to cause, and plan around them. Risk only tells you a general area to focus on.
c) Use Cases derived from the business flows by domain experts. -See b)
d) Expected results from comparison with an existing system. -Not wrong, but a) is more complete
25) Which of the following would be the best test approach when there are poor
specifications and time pressures?
b) Condition Coverage. -Requires good specification to write tests from
c) Exploratory Testing. -Correct, exploratory doesn't rely on specification and can produce (some) results very quickly
d) Path Testing. -Requires good specification to write tests from
26) Which one of the following techniques is structure-based?
a) Decision testing. -Correct answer, decision testing is always white-box/structure-based
b) Boundary value analysis. -Black-box
c) Equivalence partitioning. -Black-box
d) State transition testing. -Arguable, but ISTQB says this is black-box
27) You have started specification-based testing of a program. It calculates the
greatest common divisor (GCD) of two integers (A and B) greater than zero.
The following test cases (TC) have been specified.